CC licensing and open access

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Here’s an example of how lim­it­a­tions through CC licences can change what you do with a paper.

I’m look­ing at an image. At first I thought to use it in a blog post about organic bat­ter­ies. I thought I could do that because the paper is open access, but the licence of the paper is BY-NC-ND. Taking an image from the paper and blog­ging about it is pretty much mak­ing a D of it. The ND for­bids deriv­at­ives, even if the point of the deriv­at­ive is to say “Hey go look at this paper!” The page for the image itself has no CC licence inform­a­tion, so it looks like the copy­right in the footer applies.

I can see why there’s the NC clause. This has its own prob­lems, like mak­ing it unus­able for things like Wikipedia, but I can see sense in it. But ND seems an odd clause for sci­entific papers. Surely (properly-credited) deriv­at­ive works are a good thing for sci­ent­ists? I can see there’s a reason for ND in artistic pro­tec­tion, but sci­ence papers gen­er­ally aren’t works of art. Are there good reas­ons for Nature to have the ND clause?

I’ve trimmed the image thumb­nail and descrip­tion from the link because they would be deriv­at­ive from ori­ginal paper.

#blog   #pub­lish­ing   #aca­demia  

Embedded Link

Lithium stor­age mech­an­isms in pur­purin based organic lith­ium ion bat­tery elec­trodes : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group

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STFC and the fall of the Roman Empire

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One puzzle about the Roman Empire is that while they had tech­no­logy they often didn’t use it to its full poten­tial. For instance, take the steam engine. Hero of Alexandria had demon­strated a basic steam engine, the aeolio­pile, around two thou­sand years ago. A little work would have given them the rail­way and in later years Rome really needed a railway.


The aeol­i­pile in action

One use is the obvi­ous applic­a­tion to the mil­it­ary and com­mu­nic­a­tions. With a rail net­work Rome could have moved legions to trou­bles­pots quickly and reacted to incur­sions much faster. If you want a simple peer into the future then you could argue that with rail­ways the Roman Empire may never have fallen. In fact the future prob­ably would have been much more rad­ic­ally different.

A rail­way would have made much more of the Empire eco­nom­ic­ally access­ible. Rome was fed by corn from Egypt because Egypt was much more eco­nom­ic­ally access­ible than the Italian hin­ter­land. Sailing from Egypt didn’t con­sume corn in the way that an ox-pulled cart would. The sea, and to a lesser extent the rivers, were the cargo high­ways of the ancient world. A rail­way could have added much more ter­rit­ory into an empire-wide mar­ket. To be hon­est I couldn’t start to work what the effects of a pancon­tin­ental single eco­nomy would have had on Rome and Europe over two thou­sand years. Its likely that even within a cen­tury or so Rome would have been eco­nom­ic­ally and tech­no­lo­gic­ally more advanced by any meas­ure you’d care to use. In the longer term it’s harder to tell. Socially, bet­ter com­mu­nic­a­tions might have helped the devel­op­ment of demo­cracy, but equally it could aid a repress­ive régime. The arrival of ori­ental cults would have been a fur­ther con­found­ing factor. Still, given the bene­fits for increased wealth, why didn’t rail­ways happen?

There’s plenty of reas­ons, but one major prob­lem is polit­ical. Roman polit­ics worked through a cli­ent and pat­ron sys­tem. A sen­ator would be a cli­ent and provide oppor­tun­it­ies to lesser sen­at­ors and equites (knights). These would in turn be pat­rons to cli­ents fur­ther down the food chain and so on. One top sen­ator there­fore had a lot of influ­ence. This mattered when passing laws because influ­ence can be turned into votes. Now, if you have a mine where you replace a lot of the work­ers with a mech­an­ical pump or track, what hap­pens to that influ­ence? All those work­ers now become cli­ents of other sen­at­ors and you’re in a polit­ic­ally weaker pos­i­tion. Being rich and weak then makes you a tar­get for any­one with a passing fancy to your wealth.

Investment in tech­no­logy would prob­ably have been a long-term suc­cess story and changed life in unima­gin­able ways. The polit­ical sys­tem how­ever was geared to work against change.

In the past week the STFC slashed budgets for a stag­ger­ing num­ber of pro­jects in Astronomy, Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics. There was a £80,000,000 hole in the fin­ances that was due to mis­man­ag­ment rather than the cur­rent nation­wide crisis. Interestingly the mis­man­aged RBS has a bonus pot of around £1,500,000,000, and at the same time is tak­ing a fur­ther gov­ern­ment bail­out to pay for this suc­cess. There’s also an event lined up for 2012 in London much of which is designed to leave min­imal impact cost­ing £12,000,000,000.

It’s hard to pre­dict what kind of future is being lost by the STFC. At Leicester there’s an X-ray lens based on lob­ster eyes wait­ing for a launch. The prob­lem with X-rays is that you can’t really use a lens like you would for the vis­ible spec­trum, but you can bend it by hav­ing glance off mir­rors. That’s what this lens does to bring and image to a focus, and it’s going to have a big impact on X-ray astro­nomy which is the part of the EM spec­trum you need to be look­ing at for high energy events. What is par­tic­u­larly nifty about it is that it’s quite small. Usually when you thing of power­ful tele­scopes you think of some­thing massive. This is small enough to be able to be used in hos­pit­als, so it turns out a prob­lem in observing black holes will have a med­ical applic­a­tion. On top of that it could also help build smal­ler tran­sist­ors for cir­cuit boards.

It’s not pos­sible to say what the pro­jects axed by the STFC could have revealed. If someone could say what they would achieve then no one would need to actu­ally do them. The fact that they are lost and the STFC is present­ing this as a Good Thing shows a ter­ri­fy­ing lack of ima­gin­a­tion. What is needed is a gov­ern­ment with long term vis­ion, but the UK’s cur­rent gov­ern­ment struggles with see­ing more than a year in advance. It’s not really will­ing to make an invest­ment that someone else might bene­fit from, even if it’s the best course for the nation.

On December the 22nd, the gov­ern­ment announced £398m cuts from a HE budget. They made a big show of main­tain­ing a £109m rise in research fund­ing to off­set the near £400m cuts. What seems to have slipped their minds is that the research budget is only for 2010-11 and the recent pre-budget report tar­gets HE for £600m of cuts, with the research cuts being the prime source of money (p. 110 [PDF]).

I think this shows why History of Science isn’t just about the sci­ence, you need a social dimen­sion too. A his­tor­ian look­ing back at this era, look­ing only at the pro­jects would go mad. We’ve paid to build the Gemini tele­scopes, but we won’t get to use them because we’ve cut our sub­scrip­tion. We paid to build ALICE at the Large Hadron Collider, which hasn’t been run­ning that long. According to the STFC now the LHC has been switched on and there’s the pos­sib­il­ity of res­ults, it’s time to with­draw from ALICE so we “can do some­thing new.” The decisions only make sense* if you under­stand that politi­cians in the UK value incom­pet­ent bankers more than they value excel­lent research.

* The wrong word I know, but I can’t think of a bet­ter one at the moment.

REF & ʇɔɐdɯı lɐɹnʇlnɔ

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A photo of Atlantis. It has more Impact if you can't see it.

A photo of Atlantis. It has more Impact if you can’t see it.

At the start I should make clear that I am not an expert and I can’t say for cer­tain exactly what Impact is. The reason I’m writ­ing this is that sadly no one else can say what Impact is either, though HEFCE has a go. That’s a prob­lem, because it’s going to play a big part in the assess­ment of uni­ver­sit­ies in 2012.

Periodically uni­ver­sit­ies in the UK are assessed. In the past this has been done by the RAE, the Research Assessment Exercise. The RAE came in for a lot of cri­ti­cism. The rules would change and often decisions about the the assess­ment would work were not taken till after the uni­ver­sit­ies had made their sub­mis­sions. Many people argued that the RAE was expens­ive and unre­li­able. What’s happened is that the gov­ern­ment have listened to the cri­ti­cisms and replaced the RAE with the REF, the Research Excellence Framework. This dif­fers from the RAE in some respects, but it’s not exactly clear how, keep­ing the ele­ment of uncer­tainty. On the plus side some fea­tures like the expense have been retained. The big mys­tery though is Impact.

How do you meas­ure how good a department’s aca­demic research is? You could exam­ine that research by look­ing at a sample of aca­demic papers, and that’s 65% of the frame­work. But 25% of the assess­ment will be on Impact in non-academic contexts.

The obvi­ous example is Economic Impact, and this is where some people have an idea of what Impact is. You might research mag­netic mono­poles, but if you find one, what’s the point? If how­ever you pat­ent the pro­cess for mak­ing them and exploit it, you can show this research has a clear eco­nomic pay­back. The catch is your depart­ment has to exploit it. You can’t claim there’s an eco­nomic if a hun­dred com­pan­ies inde­pend­ently exploit it, because it’s their work as innov­at­ors that’s giv­ing your research eco­nomic impact rather than your own efforts. You can’t claim for other people’s work, which sounds sens­ible. You might have spot­ted a flaw in that, but it gets better.

Some fields clearly have no obvi­ous eco­nomic impact. You can’t really pack­age num­ber the­ory as a product and a new inter­pret­a­tion of an Aristophanes’ play which sheds light on Athenian demo­cracy in the Peloponnesian War is going to be hard to sell as an indus­trial pro­cess. So to help his­tor­i­ans and archae­olo­gists there’s Cultural Impact. As far as I, or any­one else, can tell Cultural Impact is gen­er­ated the same way as Economic Impact. So let’s take the Antikythera Mechanism as an example and see what Cultural Impact it’s had.

Work on the mech­an­ism has fea­tured in every major qual­ity news­pa­per around the planet. That adds up to a total Cultural Impact of zero. That’s because it’s the news­pa­pers that exploited that to make the stor­ies, not the research team. I don’t know how much vis­its to the National Museum in Athens have gone up by, but it’s safe to bet there’s more vis­it­ors to see the mech­an­ism. Luckily I don’t have to know the fig­ures, because the Cultural Impact would be zero. It would be the National Museum that’s put­ting on the dis­play, not the research group. The research has clearly put the mech­an­ism much more in the pub­lic con­scious­ness that it has been. But we don’t need to work out a way of meas­ur­ing that but we don’t need to any­way because the Cultural Impact of that is zero. A pop­u­lar book might be an example of Impact. They’re work­ing on one, and there’s another already out, Decoding the Heavens. This book, which exists as a dir­ect con­sequence of their work, won’t count for Impact because Jo Marchant wrote it.

You may need to turn off your irony meter. I needed an example of excel­lent research that every­one knows about [PDF]. There’s hardly any­thing bet­ter known in recent archae­olo­gical research than the Antikythera Mechanism. That’s why I used it, but — because it’s a thing I’m doing — they can’t claim Cultural Impact for it. If I’d used my own bit of research that no one had heard of then I could use this blog post as an example of cul­tural impact, because clearly the only impact it would have had would be trace­able to me.

This pain­fully illus­trates why the meas­ure­ment of Cultural Impact is broken. Defining what Culture is is a major pro­ject. One com­mon factor though is that cul­ture is shared. I don’t know of any­one arguing for a cul­ture of One. So any­thing which genu­inely has cul­tural impact as you or I would under­stand it must have escaped from its cre­ator. If you want a new word in the Oxford English Dictionary one of the basic rules is that it must be in use bey­ond its ori­ginal source. If you want your work to have cul­tural impact it must be used in ways that you had no influ­ence over. This is the exact oppos­ite to the REF’s notion of Impact.

It’s not just a non­sense idea. If we take it ser­i­ously then it act­ively pro­motes depart­ments who take an ivory bunker men­tal­ity. Let’s ima­gine I find King Arthur’s Crown. If I want to score Impact I keep the details of the research to myself for my own pop­u­lar book. I make sure all the pho­tos of the object taken are assigned copy­right to me, so no one shows the crown without my per­mis­sion. If I put the crown on a table with no explan­a­tion for an audi­ence of 100 people that’s more Impactful than if I let the British Museum put on an extra­vag­anza put­ting the crown in its medi­eval con­text. This is all about lock­ing down IP so that I own it, and the pub­lic who likely fun­ded the research don’t.

Sadly this applies to other forms of Impact. Take the work at CERN. That’s pro­duced the World Wide Web. What is the Economic Impact of the web, which handles mil­lions of pounds of trade across the world every hour? Zero. Because other people are exploit­ing it. If it were a licenced tech­no­logy that only major com­pan­ies could afford then it would have a massive impact even if most people couldn’t use it.

It seems that there’s two options. One is that the REF’s notion of Impact is borked and totally unsuit­able for the task it’s given. The other is that Impact is fine and genu­inely trans­form­at­ive research which every­one can use in their own way is a Bad Thing that we should not encour­age. If this is about mak­ing sup­port­ing excel­lent research that has genu­ine cul­tural impact, then the cur­rent Impact idea would be exactly the wrong way to go about it.

Bookmarks for 16th of November through to 18th of November

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These are my links for 16th of November through 18th of November:

  • The Academic Journal Racket « In the Dark
    Telescoper explains how aca­demic pub­lish­ing works. The only thing that would improbe the post would be the theme from ‘The Naked Gun’ in the background.
  • A Case in Antiquities for ‘Finders Keepers’ — NYTimes​.com
    You can make argu­ments in favour of repat­ri­ation of antiquit­ies. You can make argue­ments against. Being on either side doesn’t make you inher­ently fool­ish. But when you write that the British Army took the Rosetta Stone from the French and “returned it to the British Museum” then some­thing has gone wrong. It’s prob­ably a case of moment­ary brain­fade rather than idiocy, but it mat­ters because the whole ques­tion of own­er­ship of the Rosetta Stone is about where it right­fully belongs. Using the word ‘returned’ builds in the assump­tion that all antiquit­ies are inher­ently British.
  • Notes & Queries; Sledges — Theoretical Structural Archaeology
    Geoff Carter con­cluded he didn’t have evid­ence for a stag­ger­ingly early cart shed in Poland. Could it have been a used to house a sledge? I’ve just real­ised I know abso­lutely noth­ing at all about the his­tory of sleds and sledges. Not only that, but I can’t recall much atten­tion being called to them in early pre­his­toric archae­ology other than when people want to talk about mov­ing mega­liths to Stonehenge. Yet Martha Murphy (guest blog­ging) shows there’s plenty of ques­tions to ask about neo­lithic transport.
  • British bank turns to treas­ure hunt­ing via @johnabartram
    Avast me hearties! Robert Fraser & Partners be scourin’ the high seas in search of booty. They be fundin’ Odyssey Marine Exploration, Inc. ter search the Caribbean fer Spanish gold. Arrr!
  • CRM Problem in Cadboro Bay « Northwest Coast Archaeology
    More on the prob­lems of pre­serving her­it­age in BC. Ancient buri­als have been scooped out of the ground, <em>after</em> an archae­olo­gical assessment.

Time to ditch the press release?

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Fixing the newspapers. Photo (cc) Evil Erin.

Fixing the news­pa­pers. Photo (cc) Evil Erin.

At the National Astronomy Meeting in 2004 I listened to Dr David Whitehouse, who I think was then Science Editor at the BBC, give advice about feed­ing sci­ence stor­ies to the media. He made quite a few points, but there are three I remember.

  1. Don’t push a story on the grounds it’s the biggest / old­est / shi­ni­est / crum­bli­est etc. thing found. It’s a cliché and it’s dull.
  2. Don’t waste people’s time with the for­mula for ‘x’ where x is any­thing which really shouldn’t have a formula.
  3. Don’t use press releases.

At the time he really didn’t con­vince me. The biggest, old­est and so on remains a staple news item. Likewise Cliff Arnall has shown you can make money from non­sense for­mu­lae. What really under­mined him though was the news­room run by the RAS at the meet­ing. I could wander in there and see the press releases. The next day I could see the same stor­ies, often with little edit­ing, in the national press. If he were to give the same talk today he might find it even harder. I can go to Eurekalert and pick up a sen­tence from any press release. If I paste it into Google I will find masses of news web­sites repeat­ing the press release near verbatim.

Surely this proves pub­li­city is about get­ting your press release into the right press release mill? I might have a news story by the end of the year and so I’ve thought about what I want to achieve with pub­li­city. I’m job hunt­ing. Press cov­er­age could be really help­ful to intro­duce me and my work to depart­ments. That’s why I’m more inter­ested in qual­ity rather than quant­ity and that’s why I think David Whitehouse could be right.

The reason I was scep­tical is because of an adversarial model of researcher-journalist rela­tions. Basically this is down to two complaints.

  1. Journalists regur­git­ate press releases without any crit­ical thought.
  2. Journalists don’t regur­git­ate my press releases without any crit­ical thought.

Clearly that proves that any prob­lems in sci­ence journ­al­ism are the fault of journ­al­ists rather than my work being unnews­worthy. You can’t argue with logic like that unless you’re very drunk.

If you see journ­al­ists as a bar­rier between you and the pub­lic then bypassing them makes sense. The tar­get becomes get­ting the press release as unmangled as pos­sible into the public’s hands. This kind of think­ing is the basis behind Futurity. The journ­al­ists are a resource val­ued as far as they can repro­duce the release you’ve given them. Presumably there’s a corol­lary to this rela­tion­ship from the journ­al­ists’ side where sci­ent­ists are val­ued as far as fit­ting a mar­ket­ing niche.

David Whitehouse argued that what journ­al­ists really want is an exclus­ive. Sticking a press release out means that it’s low pri­or­ity because every­one will be able to cover the story. It wasn’t the best sales pitch because what I heard at the time was “If you put out a press release then lots of people will cover it, but an exclus­ive means only one per­son cov­ers it.” If you’re in the adversarial model then the choice between press release and talk­ing to just one journ­al­ist, who may decide not to run your story, is a no-brainer.

Now I’ve changed my mind.

My work is inter­dis­cip­lin­ary. Journals, gen­er­ally, aren’t. That means if I pub­lish my work in one journal then it’ll be missed by a lot of the poten­tial audi­ence because research­ers tend to read journ­als in their own dis­cip­line and only a few out­side it. What I need is to pub­li­cise the work so that research­ers out­side the field of whatever journal I pub­lish in will be aware of the paper. So if I pub­lish in The Journal of Obscure Astronomy then I’ll have to find some way to alert clas­si­cists and archae­olo­gists to the paper, else they’ll never read it — even if JOA is open access or the paper’s on arXiv.

Having a press release appear on a thou­sand web­sites is great for the ego, but it’s point­less if they’re a thou­sand web­sites that no-one with an interest in clas­sics or archae­ology reads. If I wanted to announce work to a small num­ber of intel­li­gent people I’d post it here. What I need is qual­ity of cov­er­age rather than quant­ity. In fact as I wrote that last sen­tence it struck me how irrel­ev­ant quant­ity of cov­er­age is.

It sounds good. It’s some­thing people can meas­ure in column inches but real­ist­ic­ally 10 column inches in two papers is not twice as good as 5 inches in one paper. Sharing links is easy. If the story appeared in just one major site, the link would be passed around. Appearing in more papers aids dis­cov­ery, but the stor­ies will all be say­ing sim­ilar things about the work. I was told that the recent pub­lic­a­tions on the Antikythera Mechanism appeared as news stor­ies in all the qual­ity papers in the world. But I bet if I were to sit down and read them all I’d find very little new inform­a­tion after the first three stor­ies. Certainly appear­ing in more qual­ity press is a bet­ter res­ult, but the size of the read­er­ship for the major news sites is such that appear­ing in just one major site will still deliver more reach than a hun­dred minor sites.

It also looks like a prac­tical way to aid good journ­al­ism. I’m will­ing to bet that any sci­ence journ­al­ist with even a bit of tal­ent would like to see the end of press releases being called news. If we rein­force the idea that a recycled press release is news then there’s no call for spe­cial­ist sci­ence journ­al­ists because any­one can recycle a press release.

That’s why I’ve decided the next time I have a story — if the journal doesn’t have its own media policy — I’m going to try pitch­ing it dir­ect to a journ­al­ist rather than via a press release. I’m not com­fort­able with this. Every day you can see press releases work­ing in the papers and if web­sites recycle mater­ial big num­bers are attract­ive. But maybe that’s a safety net? If news sites really are put­ting up press releases as news then even if attempts to pitch the exclus­ive fail you can always fall back on a press release. That’s another reason press releases shouldn’t be the first option.

Fund your project via the web

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Money Shot. Photo (cc) Jessica Smith

I saw an inter­est­ing fund­ing oppor­tun­ity on ReadWriteWeb and, because it’s only open to Americans, I thought to share it. Kickstarter​.com looks like it could be use­ful for fund­ing small-scale aca­demic projects.

The idea is simple enough, you look through the vari­ous pro­jects on the web­site and if you see an idea you like you pledge some money to it. If a pro­ject raises all the money it needs in pledges before a dead­line then credit cards are charges and the pro­ject gets the money. If the pro­ject doesn’t get enough money the pledges lapse. The pro­ject gets noth­ing, but this also means there’s no oblig­a­tion to ful­fil tar­gets on a cut budget.

You’re prob­ably not going to fund a large or even medium-sized Hadron col­lider with this, but for sub-$5000 pro­jects, it might be a pos­sib­il­ity. It strikes me as a good match for some archae­olo­gical work. The dif­fi­culty is work­ing out what you can give back. Ideally you’d want to pub­lish all your find­ings, so it’s hard to jus­tify keep­ing back use­ful inform­a­tion for back­ers only. You could give pri­or­ity to back­ers like subscriber-only updates live from the field. The dif­fi­culty I fore­see with this is that it then means on top of work, you’ll want to spend a couple of hours each day pro­du­cing the updates. If you’re some­where where updat­ing from the field is dif­fi­cult, like the Sahara, then it’s harder to work this model. Tweets from a private account won’t be much of bonus if the back­ers can’t inter­act with the fieldworker(s).

On the other hand if you have a known budget with a known num­ber of back­ers then you can budget to include pro­du­cing premium con­tent. So say­ing that any­one that pledges over $X get a limited-edition hard­back edi­tion of the report is feas­ible – or at least it would be if Lulu’s cost cal­cu­lator had been work­ing when I wrote this. On the down­side $20 from a $50 pledge would be lost pro­du­cing the con­tent, but that’s still a net gain of $30. Giving some­thing back to the back­ers seems pretty essen­tial as they’ll be the obvi­ous mar­ket for your next project.

At the moment the site is lim­ited to American pro­jects because the sys­tem works through Amazon pay­ments. If it’s suc­cess­ful then it’ll either expand or else a big­ger start-up with open a globally-accessible com­pet­itor. Either way if the bal­ance between premium con­tent and open-access can be found, then it could be an altern­at­ive source of fund­ing, for pro­jects with pop­u­lar appeal.

I’m now giv­ing ser­i­ous thought to fund­ing future pro­jects of my own. Because I tend to stick to basic sur­vey, my own costs tend to be travel and car hire. One idea I’m con­sid­er­ing is com­mer­cial spon­sor­ship. If a non­sense sur­vey can earn someone £500 for simply attach­ing a name, then pro­du­cing a news-worthy story should be worth a few thou­sand to the right spon­sor. That means prov­ing news-worthiness. I’ll be look­ing hard at pub­li­city for my next paper as I got it badly wrong last time. If I learn from that I’ll take a rad­ic­ally dif­fer­ent approach.

Blogging and Honesty

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A ramble rather than a rant.

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How do you put your blog posts together? Photo after erix!

There’s been a spate of ‘Why Blog?’ posts in the Biblioblogosphere. They hap­pen every so often amongst blog­gers. Sometimes they’re insight­ful and some­times they’re navel gaz­ing. Thankfully the dis­cus­sion leans towards the former here. Charles Ellwood Jones has put up a round up of posts at the Ancient World Bloggers Group.

The entries that par­tic­u­larly caught my eye were on hon­esty in blog­ging. Jim West kicked that strand off, you should read the whole thing, but key pararaphs are:

In sum, do we refrain from blog­ging what we really think about this or that or the other because we are unsure of ourselves, or because we are fear­ful of the reac­tion or– and worst of all– because we are afraid we might not be called to serve at Harvard or Yale if someone there reads what we cheekily say?

I find myself, at the end of the day, con­stantly amazed at the unwill­ing­ness of some to be them­selves. I take this as noth­ing but hypo­crisy. Hide your­self, don’t say what you think, play the hypo­crite, and someone may hire you or pub­lish you. As though being hired or pub­lished were more import­ant than hon­esty. Which I sup­pose, for some, they are.

Roland Boer is in agree­ment. There were a couple of other responses. Mark Goodacre com­men­ted on the split between his blogs into broadly pro­fes­sional and per­sonal, because some one might want to read the one and not the other. In a dif­fer­ent dir­ec­tion Missives from Marx argues that in some cases anonym­ity is neces­sary for hon­esty. I think that MM makes a mis­take. Missives from Marx is not an anonym­ous blog. It’s a pseudomym­ous blog and there’s the con­stant pos­sib­il­ity that someone will con­nect the pseud­onym to the per­son. To be hon­est you may struggle to find people openly blog­ging “Yes! I am a hypo­crite, AND PROUD OF IT!“
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